5. Nina LUBETKIN- was born on 30 May 1916 in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Nina married ²Benny GARBUZ³- [MRIN:8].
Their children were:
7 M i. Yuri GARBUZ- .
Nina next married ²Gregory GORFEYN³- [MRIN:9] in 1937 in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Their children were:
8 M i. Yuri GORFEYN- was born in 1939 in St. Petersburg, Russia.
6. Berthold LUBETKIN- 1,2 was born in 1901 in Tblisi, Georgia, Russia, died in 1991 in Bristol, England, at age 90,3 and was buried in 1991 in London, England.
General Notes: LUBETKIN, BERTHOLD Berthold Lubetkin (1901-), born in Tiflis, Georgia, Russia, was probably the most influential of several European architects who emigrated to Britain in the early 1930s and who were largely responsible for bringing the International style of modern architecture to Britain. Designer, theorist, philosopher, and socialist, he has had an enormous influence on a younger generation of architects despite the small number of his major works. He began his studies in Moscow and Petrograd (1920-1922), after which he left for study first in Berlin and Warsaw, then in Paris (1925-1927) at the Ecole Speciale d'Architecture, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (Atelier AUGUSTE PERRET), the Ecole Superieure de Beton Arme, and the Institut d'Urbanisme at the Sorbonne. His first success was a winning design in the competition for the Polytechnic of the Urals, Sverdlovsk (1925), during the short period of experiment in the early years of Soviet Russia. From 1927 to 1930, Lubetkin was in practice in Paris with JEAN GINSBERG. Their 1927 apartment building at 25, avenue de Versailles attracted criticism at the time for the uncompromising horizontality of its facade. In 1931, Lubetkin moved to England, and in 1932, he became the senior partner in the cooperative partnership TECTON, formed with a group of young graduates of the Architectural Association School, London. Lubetkin was also a founder-member in 1933 of the Modern Architectural Research Group (MARS), formed of young designers, writers, and scientists to exchange and develop technical ideas, to promote the new architectural movement in Britain, and to represent Britain at the meetings of the Congres Internationaux de l'Architecture Moderne. In 1932-1933, Tecton built the ingenious Gorilla House for the London Zoo. Several private houses and a small terrace of speculative houses were built in the mid-1930s, but the partnership's first major commission was for the Highpoint Apartment Block (1933-1935) on Highgate Hill, London, which was unique in British architecture at the time and extremely influential for the way in which Tecton had fundamentally rethought every problem down to the smallest details. Further zoo work followed in 1934 with the sculptural Penguin Pool at the London Zoo and buildings at the new zoo park at Whipsnade, Bedfordshire, and for the zoo in Dudley, Worcestershire (1936-1937) . At this time, a second block, different in structure and conception, was added to the Highpoint apartment development (Highpoint II, 1936-1938), which marked a notable change in direction away from pure functionalism in British avant-garde architecture. The Finsbury Health Centre, Pine Street (1935-1938), for the progressive London Borough of Finsbury, was the first commission in a series of public authority work which thereafter preoccupied Tecton. Here, the Lubetkin concept of the plan both solving functional requirements and generating the form of the building was accomplished with particular success. After the interruption of World War II, Tecton again regrouped but it dissolved in 1948. A new partnership with Lubetkin, Francis Skinner, and Douglas Bailey was subsequently formed, and Lubetkin was appointed architect-planner for the projected new town of Peterlee, Durham. Tragically, his imaginative scheme foundered through bureaucratic mismanagement, and Lubetkin resigned in 1950, virtually retiring from architectural practice. BETTY ELZEA WORKS 1927-1931, Apartments (with Jean Ginsberg), 25 avenue de Versailles, Paris. 1932-1933, Gorilla House (with Tecton), London Zoo. 1933-1935, Highpoint I Apartments (with Tecron), Highgate, London. 1934, Penguin Pool (with Tecton), London Zoo. 1934-1935, Whipsnade Zoo Buildings (with Tecton), Bedfordshire, England. 1935-1938, Finsbury Health Cenrer (wirh Tecton), Pine Street, London. 1936-1937, Dudley Zoo Buildings (with Tecton), Worcestershire, England. 1936-1938, Highpoint II Apartments (with Tecton), Highgate. 1937-1951, Priory Green Estate (with Tecton; completed by Lubetkin, Bailey and Francis Skinner), Finsbury; 1938-1946, Spa Green Estate (with Tecton; completed by Lubetkin, Bailey and Skinner), Finsbury; 1947-1955, Hallfield Estate (with Tecton; completed by Lasdun and Drake), Paddington; London. BIBLIOGRAPHY COE, PETER, and READING, MALCOLM 1981 Lubetkin and Tecton. Architecture and Social Commitment[:ITAL]. London: Arts Council of Great Britain. FURNEAUX,JORDAN, ROBERT 1955 "Lubetkin." Architectural Review[:ITAL] 118:36-44. JACKSON, ANTHONY 1965 "The Politics of Architecture: English Architecture, 1929-1951," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historian[:ITAL] 24:97-107. LUBETKIN, BERTHOLD 1932 "The Builders." Architectural Review[:ITAL] 214. LUBETKIN, BERTHOLD 1937 "Modern Architecture in England." American Architect 150:29-42. LUBETKIN, BERTHOLD 1956 "Soviet Architecture: Notes on Developments from 1917 to 1932." Architectural Association Journal[:ITAL] 71:260-264. LUBETKIN, BERTHOLD 1956 "Soviet Architecture: Notes on Developments from 1932 to 1955." Architectural Association Journal[:ITAL] 72:85-87 NELSON, GEORGE 1936 "Architects of Europe Today, 12: Tecton." Pencil Points 17:527-540 In January 1998, we learned of Terrence Glancy's painstaking efforts to restore Holly Frindle, a bungalow designed by Berthold Lubetkin. Terry provided this account via email: I am Terry Glancy, you picked up my profile on Aol, with my reference to aLubetkin building and my efforts to put it back together. That building is Holly Frindle one of the two Whipsnade bungalows. I bought the building from the Zoological Society about 2 years ago but was persuaded to sell it on to a third party. I did so only on the condition that I couldput Holly Frindle back together again. I am in the process of doing just that, however it has been much more difficult and time consuming than we anticipated, and believe me we expected things would be difficult. The majority of problems are a direct result of the dreadful lack of care by the then custodians of this building, the Zoological Society. A total lack of maintenance over a number years resulted in a terrible deterioration of the essential fabric. It was far worse than was apparent, even to the trained eye. The roof was by far the most difficult part of the re-build as it had had a second coat of asphalt laid on top of the original, thus locking in moisture from the original leaks and this caused a great deal of unseen damage. However it is the little things that can be so difficult, for instance the wonderful front door was in a real bad way, the Zoo lost the keys many years ago and because of the leaking roof and blocked drains the bottom of the frame was under water almost all of the time. Without the keys it was impossible to open the door, so we had to bring in expert lock smiths to drill out the lock and remake the keys. However because of the years of decay and lack of even basic maintenance we struggled for days to open that door. We had to drill out around about twenty machine studs, long since decayed and beyond redemption.Those studs held in place a seized hydraulic damper, set in the concrete floor. It was this that was preventing the door opening, however we finally removed it and the door and the refurbishment started. In the course of trying to find a company to refurbish the damper (No body could or would) it became clear that is was, is, irreplaceable. We decided to take on the job ourselves,many hours in the workshop and it is now in fully working order although a little scarred.The original door (We now believe) had never opened or shut properly as there is clear evidence of a series of repairs. Finally removing the in built errors (Not Lubetkins but the Site Formans we suspect) is testing our resources, a little. We estimate that to put he door and the hydraulic damper back to as near new condition has used up 142 man hours, to date, hopefully not many more to go. I think Bethold Lubetkin would approve, but Chris Exley (The current owner) thinks I am mad. I keep saying to him if that door does not open and close properly after all the effort it would be a sacrilege. I read a piece in one of the Sundays that credits Mies Van Der Rohe with saying "God is in the detail" well in that case there is quite a bit of God in that front door. Fortunately these days I have a little band of helpers prepared to put in their time for the pleasure of seeing Holly Frindle bloom again. Within the next eight weeks we should, weather willing, have Holly Frindle as good if not a little better than new (Modern materials) and then I hope Chris Exley will invite interested parties to the house warming. The difference is that this time round after removing a number of "Whipsnade induced errors" a full rebuild should never again be necessary.Thank you for making contact Terry Glancy PS I live near Whipsnade at Markyate, J9 M1 ||30-Oct-90 13:08 EST Sb: APn 10/25 0722 Obit-Lubetkin Fm: Executive News Svc. [76616,123] Copyright, 1990. The Associated Press. All rights reserved. The information contained in this news report may not be republished or redistributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press. LONDON (AP) -- Berthold Lubetkin, an architect who played a leading role in founding the Modernist school in Britain in the 1930s, has died at age 88, his family said. Lubetkin died Tuesday at Bristol in western England, the family said Wednesday. No cause of death was given. The son of an industrialist, he was born in Tblisi in what is now the Soviet republic of Georgia. He was reticent about his early years, saying "there is no such thing as a fact." But news reports said he was educated in Moscow and St. Petersburg, now Leningrad, witnessed the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 and absorbed the progressive ideas of Constructivism prevalent at that time. In 1922, he accompanied an exhibition of Soviet art to Berlin and went on to pursue architectural and engineering studies at various European centers. In 1925, he went to Paris, then the focus of the European avant-garde movement, and acted as site supervisory architect for Konstantin Melnikov's dynamic Constructivist Soviet pavilion for the Paris Exhibition of Decorative Arts of that year. In the French capital he met among others the Russian-born writer Ilya Ehrenburg and the painters Georges Braque, Fernand Leger and Pablo Picasso and worked with Jean Ginsberg, with whom he designed an apartment block in the Avenue de Versailles. By then a glamorous and exotic figure, Lubetkin came to London in 1931 and the following year set up Tecton, a co-operative of young architects committed to radical ideas. Modernism was named after the Modern Architecture Research Group which Lubetkin helped found in 1933. But Lubetkin's first buildings in Britain were designed not for people but animals. In 1932, thanks to the influence of scientists Sir Solly Zuckerman, later Lord Zuckerman, and Sir Julian Huxley, brother of writer Aldous Huxley, he was commissioned to design the gorilla house at London Zoo and in 1937 the penguin pool. The famous pool's composition of curved planes of reinforced concrete still draws acclaim from students of architecture. His first opportunity to build for humans came in 1933, when he was commissioned to design a luxury apartment block at Highgate in north London, the capital's highest point. Highpoint One, as the block was called, was the most conspicuous statement of the so-called new "white architecture" in Britain. Many of its details, like the S-curved front to the balconies, went on to become cliches in the 1950s. Lubetkin's London monument to Vladimir I. Lenin, unveiled by the Soviet ambassador in 1942, was later removed because of repeated attacks by anti-Communists. After World War II, the architect concentrated on designing homes for blue- collar workers. Tecton broke up in 1948 and Lubetkin abandoned architecture to take up farming in Gloucestershire in western England. An often impatient man and an inveterate gambler, Lubetkin radiated cosmopolitan charm and had an engagingly mischievous sense of humor. But he was unable to conceal his anger at the direction taken by post-war architecture. In 1982, in belated recognition of his pioneering work, the Royal Institute of British Architects presented him with its Royal Gold Medal for Architecture. In his acceptance speech, he attacked the architectural style known as Post-Modernism that flourished after the war as a "transvestite" aberration, the "mumbo jumbo of a hit-and-miss society." He was equally critical of the style dubbed High-Tech. Lubetkin married architect Margaret Church in 1936. She died in 1978. They had two daughters and a son, who survive him.
Berthold married ²Margaret Louise CHURCH³- [MRIN:4] in 1936 in London, England.
Their children were:
+ 9 F i. Alexandra (Sasha) LUBETKIN- was born in 1942 in London, England.
Alexandra married ²John GILLETT³- [MRIN:5] in 1965 in London, England.
10 M ii. Andrew Joseph LUBETKIN- was born in 1945 in London, England and died in 1947 in London England, at age 2.
+ 11 M iii. Steven Duff LUBETKIN- was born in 1946 in London, England.
Steven married ²Elizabeth JONES³- [MRIN:6] in 1988.
12 F iv. Louise LUBETKIN- was born in 1949 in London, England.
Louise married ²Len KEHOE³- [MRIN:7] in 1977.